The Different Types of Theft

By on 7-19-2019 in Types of Law

As someone interested in attending law school, the legal world has always been fascinating to me — especially criminal law. Even for someone like me who is interested in law, legal jargon can be confusing. Take a look at what I found when researching the different types of thefts covered under the law.


Larceny is also known as simple theft. It is what we commonly think of when we think of theft. Larceny involves unlawfully taking property that does not belong to you and rather another person or entity. Simple theft can be broken down into two main categories: petty theft (or petit theft) and grand theft.

The difference between petty and grand theft depends on the value of what is stolen. Petty theft involves stealing items of under a certain value (depending on the state) and grand theft involves stealing items over that value. As the name suggests, petty theft is considered less serious than grand theft.


Robbery involves intimidation, threat, or actual use of violence when committing a crime. You hear robbery referred to as armed robbery or maybe even mugging. Because of the threat or actual use of violence in incidences of robbery, robbery is taken very seriously and carries very hefty penalties.


Burglary is the unlawful act of entering a building with the intention of committing a crime — in most cases theft. But for a burglary charge to be proven, the prosecution must produce evidence that there was an intention of committing a crime. If you enter the property without that intent, it is not burglary.


Fraud is the act of tricking someone to give you their property or money under false pretenses is known as fraud. Fraud typically does not include any threat or actual use of violence and is often committed within a business setting. This doesn’t mean fraud charges are any less serious than other theft charges. Victims of fraud are often hurt financially — often to a devastating extent.

There are various different types of fraud:


Embezzlement involves being entrusted with someone else’s money and using it for a purpose not agreed upon between the two parties.


This means an individual has created a fake currency or check, among other instruments.

Tax Evasion

Individuals who lie to the government about their income in an effort to pay fewer taxes have committed tax fraud or tax evasion.

Facing Charges

If you’re facing any charges for the above crimes, contact an attorney immediately. Each of these charges brings the potential of having to pay significant fines or serving jail time. Having a criminal record could greatly impact your ability to find a job or housing in the future.

For these reasons, it is so important that you speak to an attorney like the lawyers at Bruno Law Offices. An experienced attorney has seen it all and will be able to argue against the charges brought against you by the prosecution. Don’t take the risk of representing yourself — invest in an attorney.

Is my Boss Allowed to Do This?

By on 5-10-2018 in Retaliation Legal Claims

You walk into work one day, and you do your job as you have every day during your employment. At some point, however, you said or did something, not related to your job performance, that your employer did not like. Maybe you filed a complaint with the HR department because of some mistreatment you experienced. You go into work the next day, thinking the whole situation has blown over. Unfortunately, it has not. Your employer begins to mistreat you. This makes your job stressful and unbearable. After a couple of weeks, you walk into work to find that you have been terminated. Your life negatively changed in the blink of an eye because you filed a complaint with your HR department. This does not seem right.

This sort of behavior by the employer is known as retaliation. Retaliation occurs when an employer punishes an employee for undergoing some sort of legally protected activity, or if an employer poorly treats an employee because of some individual characteristic. Retaliation takes many different forms, but the most common types of retaliation involve demotions, salary reductions, or terminations.

As an advocate for workers’ rights and having an interest in employment relationships in general, I did a little digging to understand further the circumstances surrounding employer retaliation. I came across an excellent article that explained the woes and hardships associated with employer retaliation. I was astounded.

The article listed some of the various individual characteristics that generate unjust retaliation by an employer. It explained that some employees are treated poorly because of their race, age, national origin, disability, sex, and gender. The article also described some of the more common employee actions that result in retaliation by the employer. The employee actions that commonly result in retaliation include whistleblowing, filing a workers’ compensation claim, taking leave, and failing to perform an illegal act for the employer. Whatever the reason, employers often unjustly retaliate and can negatively change the lives of the innocent employees.

The article also pointed out the tough issue involved with retaliation actions. If an employer retaliates, an employee often must turn to the HR department. Often, retaliation occurs because the employee initially went to the HR department with some legally justified complaint against the employer. When retaliation occurs, the employee is forced to return to the place where it all began. This can make things difficult for mistreated employees.

Retaliation can be terrible, but it is essential to be aware of the signs of mistreatment. Employees can file complaints. They have legally-protected rights. Take note of your employer’s actions if you think they have adversely changed in response to a complaint you have submitted. Make sure your HR department is aware of this, even if HR was the initial source of the problem. Understand that retaliation can be difficult to detect. Keep a sharp eye out for employer misconduct, and don’t be reluctant to speak out only because of retaliation.

Exercising Vigilance in Bank Fraud

By on 9-06-2017 in Criminal Defense

For as long as money existed, there have been people have tried to steal it from others. From muggings to train robberies, to bank heists, to email scams, there will always be someone trying to figure out how to take money from other people. And as technology has increased and grown more complex, so have the means that people use to steal. From white collar fraud schemes to theft of people’s personal data, a number of new methods technology has given criminals an ever-growing toolbox. In today’s data-reliant age, people must always be aware of the security risks around them, and what can be done about them. According to the defense attorneys Kohler, Hart, and Powell, one of the most common sources of fraud is to use a stolen identity to trick someone into giving up money.

This is what has happened recently with a scam involving fake Netflix accounts. We’ve all encountered spam before- easily noticeable, flashy, full of weird language and laughable claims about what they can do for us. Those are the easy sorts of frauds to notice. Most of us just move them into the garbage bin and move on, or let the automatic spam filters now built into almost every email service take care of it for us. But internet frauds have been getting more and more sophisticated over the years. One of the most common scams, used in this Netflix scheme, is to send emails to people pretending to be a commonly used company. They will say that, due to some sort of mistake, some of your personal information has been lost or is now insecure. According to them, you will need to send them your information to re-verify it.

The emails often look almost exactly like they have been sent from the company, and will usually have fake websites associated with them in which people are supposed to enter their information. You need to keep a sharp eye out if you want to keep your information search. Whenever you get an unexpected email from a service you use, especially ones involving money, check to make sure that it looks fully legitimate. Some things to watch out for are inaccurate URLs and missing watermarks from the companies. Even you suspect that something may be a scam, delete it. If you’re unsure if you should take action or not, you can call the actual company to confirm the information in the email with them. If the company says they didn’t send anything, don’t answer the email! You have to always stay vigilant. It may seem tiring at times, and often information security measures can appear to be excessive or unnecessary. But the consequences of losing control of your personal information can be devastating, especially in the increasingly tech-reliant world we live in. One wrong step can easily result in your identity and money being stolen by fraudsters. So be sure to stay safe whenever you’re using the internet.

Benefits of Dental Implants

By on 8-05-2017 in Dental Care

Having complete teeth is essential for an attractive smile, but not everybody is blessed with it. There are many reasons why. Maybe they have been involved in an accident that knock out a tooth. Maybe they have practiced poor oral care. Maybe they have sustained a severe oral condition. Whatever the cause may be, it doesn’t change the fact that their smiles have been compromised. There is a solution for such a problem – dental implants, or artificial tooth replacements that are placed in the gap that has been left by missing teeth. Below are just some of the many advantages of having implants.

Durability and Endurance

Implants are built to last, so you don’t have to worry about replacing them again and again. They do require adjustments from time to time, but when taken care of effectively, they can last a lifetime. The best thing about dental implants is the fact that they look like real teeth, without the risk of cavities and other oral problems. So, it can be said that you can eat whatever you want, as long as you clean your teeth properly and go to your dentist regularly.

Bone Loss Prevention

If you have a missing tooth, there will be a gap in your jaw. This is bad news because your jaw, or more specifically, your entire face, is designed to accommodate teeth. So, a gap can result into the loss of bone density and jaw strength. It can also distort the natural shape of your face, giving you a smaller face and a sunken jaw.


There is one other option for missing teeth – dentures. But dentures are not perfect. They need to be adequately cared for. Also, they have the tendency to cause discomfort, particularly in eating and talking. In fact, there may be instances where you will be doubtful in eating a particular dish, talking too fast, and using words that are hard to pronounce. With dental implants, you won’t encounter such problems.


It’s not always about the physical benefits. Having implants can also do you good on the inside. Having complete teeth and not thinking about bone loss, discomfort, and the hassles of replacing again and again, can boost confidence, which can positively affect your general enjoyment of life.

Products That Are Bad for Your Teeth

By on 5-03-2017 in Dental Care

Products That Are Bad for Your Teeth

Good oral health is not just about brushing your teeth and going to the dentist regularly, because it is also about what products you expose your teeth to. There are certain products that seem to be harmless, when in fact, they can potentially damage your teeth without you knowing so.


Alcohol has negative effects on the body, and that includes the mouth. Alcohol can dry your mouth, dehydrate you, or limit your saliva output – all these can result into oral problems such as cavities and tooth decays and gum problems such as gingivitis.


Plaque and food buildup is the primary cause of cavity and tooth decay, and one of the most important factors in this buildup is the amount of sugar and acid involved. The greater the acidic and sugary content, the greater the damage to the teeth.


Speaking of acidity, citrus products such as fruits and juices may have dangerous levels of it. Getting your teeth exposed too much to these products may be enough to cause damage, resulting into cavity and tooth decay.


Coffee can be a healthy product, but it can also be a dangerous product, because excessive amounts can dry your mouth or stain your teeth. Even if you take coffee in moderate amounts, you may still be at risk of dental problems if you are constantly putting too much sugar into it.


Ice is not inherently bad, because it is an effective product in cooling your drink. But it becomes a hazard when you put it in your mouth and chew it. This is because of its hardness. Any hard objects that you bite can cause too much stress in your teeth and jaws, possibly resulting into damage.

Potato Chip

When you think about products that may be dangerous for your teeth, potato chips are not some of the first things that come to your mind. They are overlooked causes of dental problems. The amount of starch in junk foods may be enough to damage teeth, and worse, they may even get trapped in your teeth for long periods.


Unlike potato chips, tobacco products are probably some of the first things that come to your mind. Smoking can result into gum disease, and worse, it also reduces your body’s ability to fight such diseases. As if that is not enough, smoking also puts you at risk of various kinds of cancer in the mouth area.

What You Can Do

As much as possible, avoid extremely dangerous products, such as alcohol and tobacco. You can still consume your favorite products with sugar and acid, but moderation is the key word.

The website of Dental Expressions by Dr. Gary Bram features possible solutions to dental problems, including dental implants and cosmetic dentistry procedures. But when you think about it, taking care of your oral health is a more attractive option compared to corrective measures.

How to Fight a Traffic Ticket

By on 2-17-2017 in Traffic Ticket

Is it possible to fight a traffic ticket and win? Yes, but it is not that simple. Most of the time, traffic tickets are issued because of valid reasons. But there may be instances where they can be questionable as well. If you think your case is one of those instances, feel free to fight it.

Check the traffic ticket for accuracy
Before anything else, review the traffic ticket for any errors, especially in the identification of yourself, your car, and your alleged violation. If you are not familiar with the violation you have committed, don’t be afraid to ask the officer about it so he or she can explain it to you.

Get the officer’s identification
Get the involved officer’s name, badge number, and his or her patrol car’s number. It is important to know these things so you can search for him or her for further communication regarding your case. He or she may also write a report about your violation, and you have the right to ask for a copy.

Identify the pros of fighting the ticket
Determine the advantages of contending the traffic ticket over just paying for the fine. There are several factors you should consider, like the gravity of the offense you have committed, the amount of the fine, and the time you will consume in fighting the ticket and defending yourself.

Record the details
Identify the relevant details involved in the incident and write them down on a piece of paper or on your mobile device. This will give you a better understanding of the incident. Take into consideration the weather, traffic signs and lights in the incident area, possibly hazardous materials, reckless drivers, road conditions, and other factors that may be present and have become a factor in the incident.

Get legal help
You can read about a lot of stuff on your own, such as the laws surrounding your violation. But getting the help of legal professionals will be an easier task, especially if you get lawyers who specialize on traffic ticket defense.

Types of Shoulder Replacement Procedures

By on 9-29-2016 in Shoulder Replacement Lawsuit

According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, there are about 53,000 individuals in the U.S. who undergo shoulder replacement surgery every year. Shoulder replacement surgery is performed to treat extreme joint pain, limited range of shoulder motion, as well as to relieve patients from different forms of arthritis.

Though shoulder replacement procedures are claimed to be safe and effective, doctors only consider this if medication and other non-surgical treatments cannot solve problems complained of by patients. Many of those who have this procedure are actually relieved of their pain, besides being able to resume their daily activities as well as play again the sports they love, such as swimming, tennis and golf.

There are different types shoulder replacement procedures. The type of surgical procedure a patient need to undergo will depend on his/her doctor’s evaluation of his/her specific situation and health needs. These procedures include:

Total Shoulder Replacement. This involves the replacement of the original ball-and-socket surfaces of the shoulder with a prosthetic part that is similarly shaped.

Stemmed Hemiarthroplasty or Partial shoulder replacement. This surgical procedure is intended to replace the head of the humerus with a metal ball and stem. This is the recommended procedure if the humeral head has been severely fractured, but the socket is unharmed.

Resurfacing Hemiarthroplasty or Shoulder Resurfacing. This procedure involves replacement of the joint surface of the humeral head with a stemless, cap-like prosthesis.

Reverse Total Shoulder Replacement or Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty. In this procedure, the positions of the of the shoulder joint’s ball and socket switched or reversed. This means that the implant’s ball portion is attached to the scapula instead of to the humeral head, while the artificial socket is attached to the humeral head instead of to the scapula.

As explained by a shoulder replacement lawyer, shoulder replacement surgery is a popular corrective solution for those suffering from extreme joint pain or a limited range of shoulder motion. However, not all surgical procedures turn out as safe and effective as manufacturers promise due to defectively designed replacement implants. Thus, instead of increased function and minimized pain, patients are only made to suffer much worse pain; this situation also necessitates that they undergo a corrective surgery which, according to legal professionals, is simply unjust.

Neck and Back Injuries – Facts, Symptoms and Treatment

By on 5-28-2016 in Personal Injury

The neck and back are connected to each other by the spinal cord so much so that injury to the latter can also have an effect on the neck and back as well. It is worth noting that any trauma to these two body parts can result in SCI or permanent disability. According to the website of the personal injury lawyers at Spiro Champaign Law Firm, recovery process from neck or back injuries can take several years.

In case of trauma, the neck and back should be splinted and the victim should avoid any kind of movement. It is important to be accurate with the determination of the extent and cause of the injury. The vertebral column is composed of various muscles and ligaments that provides protection to the spinal cord and facilitate movement. Even if the nerves is not involved, neck and back injuries can be quite painful.


The following are the symptoms of neck and back injury:

  • Localized pain, tenderness, and stiffness in the affected area
  • Spasm on either side of the spinal column immediately after an injury or up to 24 hours later
  • Numbness, tingling, or paralysis of an extremity which could be a symptom of a more serious injury
  • Penetrating injury in the neck needs to be treated immediately

Signs of a more serious problem:

  • When you experience neck pain after getting ill with other problems such as rheumatoid arthritis, AIDS, or cancer
  • Pain that becomes progressively worse
  • When there is an effect on some functions of the arm
  • If you have a general feeling of being unwell and experience symptoms such as weight loss or high temperature
  • Tenderness in the neck bones which could point to a serious bone problem
  • Difficulty with walking or passing urine


Chronic pain in the upper back and neck indicates that there could be a serious problem. Having general soreness in the back and neck region is a common symptom. When there is discomfort and debilitating pain, there are some steps that you can do to get quick relief.

1. Apply cold compress

Put ice in a plastic bag wrapped in a towel or anything that is cold such as a coda can right out of a vending machine.

2. Over the counter Pain Reliever

If your stomach can handle anti-inflammatory medicines such as naprosyn, take it according to package directions. Other options include muscle relaxants such as diazepam.

3. Correct posture

Walking with the right posture could also help alleviate back and neck injuries. What is the proper posture? Pretend like you are suspended by a line that connects the middle of your chest to the ceiling or sky.

4. Stretching

As soon as you get pain relief and has rested for several days, try loosening the pain by stretching. It will help prevent new pain or an old injury from coming back.

Having a bad back can be truly painful. It will restrict your movement and other activities. Follow the treatment methods above and you can be up and about in no time.

Volkswagen Reeling after Emissions Cheating Comes to Light

By on 1-15-2016 in Cars

With the latest lawsuit filed by the US Department of Justice in behalf of the EPA against German manufacturing giant Volkswagen, many consumers have also considering filing for a lawsuit. Last September 2015, Volkswagen admitted in installing illegal software on their 2-engine diesel vehicles that were sold world-wide (600,000 in the United States) which allowed the vehicles to pass the state and federal standards for clean air emissions when tested in a laboratory, failed discharge pollutants that surpass the standards when driven on the road. Volkswagen claimed that their 2-liter diesel-powered vehicles provided good fuel economy and released 25 percent less greenhouse gas compared to their gasoline engine counterparts, thus capturing a significant share of the US diesel market.

However, multiple media started to report on Volkswagens false claims and lead to the manufacturing company’s admittance of fault. According to Volkswagen, they cheated the emissions test but installing software that can detect when the vehicle is being tested and would thus reduce their emissions of harmful Co2 while being tested. The software will deactivate when driven normally on the road, leading an increase in the Co2 emission. It is stated that Volkswagen has engaged in such fraudulent claims for seven years already. Despite the increasing number of class action lawsuits being filed against Volkswagen, the manufacturing company has yet to issue a recall on their affected vehicles and is still in talks with the EPA regarding possible fixes for the issue.

Side effects of the device becoming fractured and FDA warnings

By on 9-10-2015 in Personal Injury

Pulmonary embolism is a condition that threatens many individuals suffering from deep vein thrombosis, as the severe blood clots in their legs can travel to the lungs. Medical devices exist to prevent the migration of these blood clots, including the Bard G2 IVC Filter. The Bard G2 IVC Filter is a temporary device, surgically implanted into patient’s interior vena cava designed to catch these blood clots before they reach the lungs, according to the website of Habush Habush & Rottier. The device seemed like a welcome option for individuals who were unable to take blood thinners, but soon adverse side effects began to surface.

Soon after the device’s inception, the Food and Drug Administration began receiving hundreds of reports of medical conditions and side effects that had been caused by the device. Patients began experiencing serious complications of the filter, one of the most prominent being fracture of the device. The fracture of the device could lead to doctors being unable to remove the temporary device from the body. Fracture of the device could also lead to serious heart complications including cardiac tamponade, perforation of the heart, and laceration of the heart just to name a few.

The medical device leads to numerous other complications leading to an official warning from the FDA in 2010 against the unpleasant effects of the device. The FDA officially stated that the device posed the threat of fracture and migration of the device and should be removed as soon as the threat of blood clots subsided. However, the warning came too late for many individuals.

The IVC Filter, originally meant to help individuals, has led to serious medical problems and countless individuals suffering from the device after the company failed to warn patients of the risks. The device fracturing is just one of the dangers of the device as complications continue to arise from the filter.